What ‘Fast-Twitch’ and ‘Slow-Twitch’ Muscle Fibers Actually Mean

Ever wonder how some athletes, like soccer star Megan Rapinoe or CrossFit champion Tia-Clair Toomey, are able to execute at such high levels? Perhaps their muscle fibers hold some of the solution. even more particularly, the proportion of fast-twitch to slow-twitch muscle fibers.

But precisely what are these muscle fiber types? Experts explain below what you need to know about fast-twitch vs. slow-twitch muscle fibers, including how some athletes can lift two times their own weight while others can complete a marathon in under two hours. Additionally, they address the question of whether or not you should train your fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibers separately.

MUSCLE FIBERS’ MAIN TYPES Get ready for a trip back to biology class in high school. In contrast to muscles you cannot control, such your heart and intestines, skeletal muscles are those that are related to bones and tendons and those you can control and contract. Myocytes, which are collections of muscle fibers, make them up. All muscle fiber bundles can be classified as either slow-twitch (also known as type I) or fast-twitch (also known as type II) muscle fibers, according to universal consensus.

It’s critical to comprehend that muscle fibers are really tiny. For example, you wouldn’t be able to identify a biceps muscle as a fast- (or slow-) twitch muscle by looking at it. Instead, according to Kate Ligler , a certified personal trainer with MINDBODY , “every muscle has some fast-twitch muscle fibers and some slow-twitch muscle fibers.” (More on that later; the precise ratio relies on factors like heredity and training routine.)

The “twitch speed” and the type of energy system used by slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscle fibers are their primary differences:

Twitch speed: According to athletic trainer Ian Elwood, M.A., A.T.C., C.S.C.S., CF-1, the creator of Mission MVNT , an injury rehab and coaching center in Okinawa, Japan, “Twitch speed refers to how quickly a muscle fiber contracts, or twitches,” when stimulated. Energizing systems When you exercise, several major energy systems in your body are in use. Specifically, the anaerobic system produces energy in the absence of oxygen while the aerobic system produces energy while using oxygen. The aerobic system is the recommended energy system for lower- to moderate-intensity activity since it creates energy slowly and requires blood flow to supply oxygen to the working muscles. The anaerobic system uses the little energy that is already present in your muscles, which makes it speedier but not a sustainable source of energy over the long run. RESTRICTED MUSCLE FIBERS Slow-twitch muscle fibers are often referred to as the “Kings of Cardio.” Slow-twitch muscle fibers, sometimes known as “red fibers” because they have more blood capillaries, are extremely effective at utilising oxygen to produce energy for a very long time.

Fast-twitch muscle fibers fire more quickly than slow-twitch muscle fibers, yet they can fire continuously for a long time before tiring. Elwood claims that they are resistant to tiredness.

Generally speaking, lower-intensity and/or endurance workouts use slow-twitch muscle fibers. Think:

engaging in a marathon lap swimming taking part in a triathlon exercising the dog For any action, your body actually uses these muscle fibers first, according to chiropractor Allen Conrad, D.C., C.S.C.S. of Montgomery County Chiropractic Center in Pennsylvania. However, the body will use fast-twitch muscle fibers instead of or in addition to slow-twitch fibers if the action you are performing calls for greater power than slow-twitch fibers can produce.

QUICKLY SWITCHING MUSCLE FIBERS You may refer to these as Power Queens because the body uses your fast-twitch muscle fibers when it wants to exert more force. Why are they more potent? Elwood claims that fast-twitch muscle fibers are larger and denser than slow-twitch muscle fibers.

Generally speaking, he claims that “fast-twitch muscle fibers utilize less or no oxygen, produce power at a far higher rate, and are more readily exhausted.” However, you must be aware that there are actually two varieties of fast-twitch muscle fibers: type IIa and type IIb, in order to fully comprehend this kind of muscle fibers.

Type IIa Fast-Twitch Muscle Fibers

Muscle fibers of type IIa (also known as intermediate, transitional, or moderate) are the offspring of Type I and Type IIb muscle fibers. These muscle fibers have the ability to produce energy both with and without oxygen (anaerobic).

You use these muscle fibers for relatively quick, explosive actions like:

Fran’s CrossFit WOD (a superset of dumbbell thrusters and pull-ups ) 5×5 back squats for 400 meters As lactic acid is a waste product of the anaerobic system, which these muscle fibers can utilise for energy, activating these muscle fibers can create lactic acid buildup in the muscles, which can cause that hurt-so-good sensation. You’ll feel as though you can’t perform another rep because your muscles are burning.

Type IIb Fast Twitching Muscle Fibers

The fastest-twitch muscle fibers are Type IIb, sometimes known as Type IIx or white fibers due to their absence of blood capillaries. These muscle fibers contract at the fastest pace, according to Elwood. They are merely able to produce greater power because they contract so quickly and frequently, says Ligler, not because they are necessarily “stronger” than slow-twitch muscle fibers.

These fast-twitch muscle fibers, which only receive energy from the anaerobic pathway, also experience the quickest aging. What types of exercises therefore require these muscle fibers?

max deadlift for one rep 50-yard dash after 100-meter rowing Type IIb fibers are renowned for enhancing muscle size and definition when trained.

Factors that influence the proportion of fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibers in your body Once more, every muscle contains a combination of fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibers. However, there are a few variables that can impact the proportion of slow-twitch to fast-twitch muscle fibers in your body.

Genetics research demonstrates that genes play a role in determining the precise ratio. (Fun fact: You may check your ACTN3 gene using various DNA tests from 23andMe , Helix , and FitnessGenes to see if you’re genetically prone to having more fast- or slow-twitch muscle fibers.) However, according to Steve Stonehouse, a NASM-certified personal trainer, USATF-certified running coach, and director of education for STRIDE , an indoor running studio, “activity level and your choice of sports and activities can make a tremendous difference.”

According to Ligler, untrained, inactive people often have a 50/50 mix of slow- and fast-twitch muscle fibers. However, endurance athletes (marathoners, triathletes) have been reported to have upwards of 70 to 80 percent slow-twitch muscle fibers (type I), while power-based athletes ( Kate Ligler 0, Olympic Lifters) often have upwards of 70 percent fast-twitch muscle fibers (Type II).

TRAINING PROGRAM Even within a single athlete, there can be a significant difference in muscle fiber types. According to Elwood, there have been studies that show different fiber type ratios between athletes’ dominant and non-dominant limbs. And that, he claims, is evidence that muscle fibers change according to the type of training they receive. Pretty awesome, no?

The truth is that you never ever acquire or lose muscle fibers. Instead, some of your fast-twitch muscle fibers can change to slow-twitch muscle fibers to support your training efforts throughout marathon training. Without going into too much detail, Elwood explains that this is possible because “part of your muscle fibers are actually hybrid muscle fibers, which means they can go either way.” It’s more of a transition from these hybrid fibers into those three major categories than a true change in fiber type. Therefore, if you start exercising with plyometrics, for example, after finishing your marathon training, those hybrid fibers may switch back to fast-twitch.

SEX AND AGE Contrary to popular opinion, age has little to do with the degradation of muscle fibers. You’ll most likely Kate Ligler 1 as you age. But as people age, they tend to lift less frequently, which leads to training efforts that stimulate the body to change some fast-twitch muscle fibers into slow ones, explains Ligler.

ICYWW: While there is little research on the breakdown of muscle fibers by sex, what is known indicates that women have more slow-twitch muscle fibers than males. Ligler points out that hormonal differences, not variations in the muscle-to-fiber ratio, are what account for the variances in exercise performance between men and women.

ALL TYPES OF MUSCLE FIBER TRAINING Conrad advises targeting your slow-twitch muscle fibers with low-weight, high-repetition strength training (like barre, Pilates, and some boot camps) and lower-intensity, longer-duration cardiovascular conditioning (like running, bicycling, rowing, indoor cycling, swimming, etc.). Your fast-twitch muscle fibers will be targeted by higher-intensity, heavier-weight, low-repetition strength training (such as CrossFit, powerlifting, and weightlifting) as well as higher-intensity, shorter-duration cardio and power training (such as plyometrics, track sprints, and rowing intervals). So, he explains, one strategy to focus on all types of muscle fibers in your training program is to incorporate a variety of strength and aerobic workouts.

Although you can train with a certain muscle fiber type in mind, experts aren’t sure that doing so is really required.

In the end, according to Elwood, “the fibers just do what they need to make you more efficient at whatever exercise you’re doing.” Your main focus should be on improving your individual health, fitness, or sporting objectives while having faith that your muscles will change as necessary to support you. You should combine strength and cardio if your goal is to improve your overall health, he continues.

Considering your slow-twitch vs. fast-twitch muscle fibers, will it help serious athletes achieve their objectives? Probably. But does it really matter to most people? Most likely not. But it’s always a good thing to understand the body and how it adapts.

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{“article”:{“text”:” The purpose of creating an ESG (environmental, social, and governance) green energy fund is to assist other businesses in making sustainable investments, according to Foxconn Chairman Young Liu. This followed China’s recent power outages in Sichuan, underscoring the reality that ESG is now a crucial component of the supply chain. The requirement to invest in ESG has emerged as a fresh obstacle for industry management globally. However, before firms can support ESG investing, they must first generate enough profitability. Liu thus presented an EPS (earnings per share) plus ESG sustainability formula. Liu disclosed that Foxconn intends to create an ESG green energy fund to promote and execute ESG and to hasten the development of environmental technologies in order to further increase the influence of the sustainability formula on the supply chain. According to Liu, the EPS ESG formula is suggested since if a company is not profitable, all other efforts are useless. A corporation won’t be able to create strategies for ESG if it doesn’t have the required income and profitability. According to Liu, EPS and ESG are not mutually exclusive. For instance, Foxconn has made aggressive plans to enter the EV business and is highly enthusiastic about the future of electric cars (EV). Foxconn’s investment in EVs is focused on both the ESG characteristics of the industry as well as its potential. An illustration coming from the other direction is the recent power outage in Sichuan, China, which was brought on by the region’s supply chain being disrupted by the high temperatures brought on by harsh weather. When questioned about the power outage, Liu acknowledged that it had some impact on Foxconn’s output, albeit it is not expected to have a significant impact. Liu underlined that people need to be more concerned and attentive to problems brought on by global warming. This power outage happened in China, but the drought brought on by global warming is a worldwide problem. Platformization is one of the conditions for an industry to develop, according to Liu. A platform is also necessary to encourage the growth of ESG, with a large company serving as the leader. Foxconn therefore expects that in addition to promoting ESG internally, the launch of the ESG green energy fund would help the industry and supplier chain improve as well. According to Liu, the fund’s primary objective will be to invest in initiatives connected to sustainable green energy, including power plants, new environmental technologies, and renewable energy. This is so because the use of green energy is crucial for implementing ESG. However, many small- and medium-sized businesses find the expense of purchasing green energy to be quite high (SMEs). As a result, it is hoped that the creation and investment of the green energy fund will help SMEs acquire clean energy.

The purpose of creating an ESG (environmental, social, and governance) green energy fund is to assist other businesses in making sustainable investments, according to Foxconn Chairman Young Liu. This followed China’s recent power outages in Sichuan, underscoring the reality that ESG is now a crucial component of the supply chain.

A new issue for industry management across the globe is the requirement to invest in ESG. However, before firms can support ESG investing, they must first generate enough profitability. Liu thus presented an EPS (earnings per share) plus ESG sustainability formula. Liu disclosed that Foxconn intends to create an ESG green energy fund to promote and execute ESG and to hasten the development of environmental technologies in order to further increase the influence of the sustainability formula on the supply chain.

According to Liu, the EPS ESG formula is suggested since if a company is not profitable, all other efforts are useless. A corporation won’t be able to create strategies for ESG if it doesn’t have the required income and profitability.

According to Liu, EPS and ESG are not mutually exclusive. For instance, Foxconn has made aggressive plans to enter the EV business and is highly enthusiastic about the future of electric cars (EV). Foxconn’s investment in EVs is focused on both the ESG characteristics of the industry as well as its potential.

An illustration coming from the other direction is the recent power outage in Sichuan, China, which was caused by high temperatures brought on by harsh weather and had an impact on the local supply chain. When questioned about the power outage, Liu acknowledged that it had some impact on Foxconn’s output, albeit it is not expected to have a significant impact.

Liu underlined the need for people to care about and pay attention to concerns brought on by global warming. This power outage happened in China, but the drought brought on by global warming is a worldwide problem.

Platformization is one of the conditions for an industry to develop, according to Liu. A platform is also necessary to encourage the growth of ESG, with a large company serving as the leader. Foxconn therefore expects that in addition to promoting ESG internally, the launch of the ESG green energy fund would help the industry and supplier chain improve as well.

According to Liu, the fund’s primary objective will be to invest in sustainable green energy-related projects, like as power plants, new environmental technologies, and renewable energy sources. This is so because the use of green energy is crucial for implementing ESG. However, many small- and medium-sized businesses find the expense of purchasing green energy to be quite high (SMEs). Therefore, it is hoped that the creation and funding of the green energy fund will help SMEs acquire clean energy.

“, “images”:{},”author”:”Ninelu Tu, Taipei; Jack Wu, DIGITIMES Asia”,”pub date”:”2022-08-22 11:01:25″,”is article”:1,”url”:”https://www.digitimes.com/news/a20220819PD206/esg-foxconn-green-energy-supply-chain.html?chid=13r”,”canonical url”: This followed China’s recent power outages in Sichuan, underscoring the reality that ESG is now a crucial component of the supply chain.” , “favicon”:”https://www.digitimes.com/favicon.ico”,”encoding”:”utf-8″,”time”:4.851853847503662,”js”:false,”pagination”:false,”modified date”:”2022-08-22 11:01:25″,”site name”:”DIGITIMES”